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Turbocharger


A turbocharger is an exhaust gas-driven compressor used to increase the power output of an internal-combustion engine by increasing .



A turbocharger is an exhaust gas-driven compressor used to increase the power output of an internal-combustion engine by increasing the amount of oxygen entering the engine by compressing air that is entering the engine. A key advantage of turbochargers is that they offer a considerable increase in engine power with only a slight increase in weight.


Fuel efficiency

Since a turbocharger increases the specific horsepower output of an engine, the engine will also produce increased amounts of waste heat. This can sometimes be a problem when fitting a turbocharger to a car that was not designed to cope with high heat loads. This extra waste heat combined with the lower compression ratio (more specifically, expansion ratio) of turbocharged engines contributes to slightly lower thermal efficiency, which has a small but direct impact on overall fuel efficiency.

It is another form of cooling that has the largest impact on fuel efficiency: charge cooling. Even with the benefits of intercooling, the total compression in the combustion chamber is greater than that in a naturally aspirated engine. To avoid knock while still extracting maximum power from the engine, it is common practice to introduce extra fuel into the charge for the sole purpose of cooling. While this seems counterintuitive, this fuel is not burned. Instead, it absorbs and carries away heat when it changes phase from liquid to gas. Also, because it is more dense than the other inert substance in the combustion chamber, nitrogen, it has a higher specific heat and more heat capacitance. It "holds" this heat until it is released in the exhaust stream, preventing destructive knock. This thermodynamic property allows manufacturers to achieve good power output with common pump fuel at the expense of fuel economy and emissions.


All text of this article available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License (see Copyrights for details).

  
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